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Antiretroviral Therapy: HIV and AIDS Medications

Antiretroviral Therapy

What is Antiretroviral Therapy?

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) applies with the usage of mixed ARVs (antiretroviral drugs), sometimes three ARVs, for providing medical aid to people undergoing HIV. This kind of therapy was initially popularized in 1996, alongside its purpose to provide a solution alongside the deficient consumption of only 1 tablet or medication for individuals undergoing a chronic and threatening health condition. Following its advancement, science and the medical industry have witnessed a significant change involving the fatality rate.

In order for an individual to reach an undetectable status, he/she must observe the antiretroviral therapy. Note that this aid refers to 3 medicines in 1 tablet. It could also be 2 medicines in 1 pill. With this combination, treating the infection becomes easier as an individual only consumes 1 pill per day, without the burden of ingesting at least 2 or 3 medicines per day. Once a person is regular enough in consuming his/her dosage, the virus becomes ineffective, thus, saving that individual.

ART functions by obstructing the virus. This procedure follows by inhibiting its replication activity. It avoids further production inside the body which may cause other health complications to emerge. Once the drugs have functioned sufficiently, the body’s immunity also works smoothly, enabling its function to fight different illnesses and eradicate the contagion.


The succeeding list involves the positive effects of utilizing ART:

  • Manages the viral growth
  • Diminishes negative impact
  • Advances the body’s immunity
  • Helps a patient or individual obtain an undetectable status
  • Avoids more health complications
  • Avoids possible viral transmittal
  • Helps an individual to get better treatment

List of Antiretroviral Medications

After diagnosis, a various account of suppressants will be presented. All suppressants became mixtures of distinct types.

Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

This troop are adequate to stabilize the illness as well as inhibiting it from multiplying.

Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

As with this group, its main function is by obstructing the enzyme utilized to replicate.

  • Doravirine
  • Delavirdine
  • Efavirenz
  • Nevirapine
  • Rilpivirine
  • Etravirine

Protease Inhibitors (PIs)

PIs function by obstructing the protein utilized to expand its number.

  • Darunavir
  • Atazanavir
  • Indinavir
  • Fosamprenavir
  • Lopinavir
  • Ritonavir
  • Tipranavir
  • Saquinavir

Integrase Inhibitors (INIs)

This group of ARV functions by inhibiting integrase (a type of enzyme that assists HIV to expand its number).

  • Dolutegravir
  • Raltegravir
  • Bictegravir
  • Elvitegravir

Entry Inhibitors

These types obstruct the enzyme, as well as impair its function. The suppressants involved include:

Post-Attachment Inhibitor

Once consumed, this type cut off its binding procedure. Its major aim is obstruct it and avoid sticking to active cells.

  • Ibalizumab-uiyk

Gp120 Attachment Inhibitor

Also recognized as the latest form of ARV, it obstructs and avoid it from sticking to the cells. Its members include:

  • Fostemsavir (Rukobia)

CCR5 Antagonist

To avoid a receptor, the antagonist is utilized as well as consumed at the proper dosage. Its medicine is:

  • Maraviroc

Mixed/Combined ARVs

As mentioned here, ART observes a rule of mixed suppressants. It explains a conjunction of ARVs in specified suppressant. Discover accounts of distinct ARVs which a person must ingest.

Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

Abacavir + lamivudine = Epzicom

Abacavir + lamivudine + zidovudine = Trizivir

Tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine = Descovy

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine = Truvada

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + lamivudine = Cimduo

Zidovudine+ Lamivudine = Combivir

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs)

Doravirine+ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + lamivudine = Delstrigo

Efavirenz+ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine = Atripla

Rilpivirine+ tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine = Odefsey

Rilpivirine+ tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine = Complera

Protease inhibitors (PIs)

Atazanavir + cobicistat = Evotaz

Darunavir+ cobicistat = Prezcobix

Darunavir + cobicistat+ tenofovir alafenamide + emtricitabine = Symtuza

Integrase inhibitors (INIs)

Bictegravir + tenofovir alafenamide+ emtricitabine = Biktarvy

Dolutegravir+ abacavir + lamivudine = Triumeq

Dolutegravir + rilpivirine = Juluca

Dolutegravir+ lamivudine = Dovato

Elvitegravir + cobicistat + tenofovir alafenamide+ emtricitabine = Genvoya

Elvitegravir+ cobicistat + tenofovir disoproxil fumarate + emtricitabine = Stribild

Side Effects

As one consumes an ARV, expect to undergo distinct adverse reactions. Once unwanted reactions converse to severe, contact the attending physician immediately to obtain all necessary medical aid. These are as follows:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Stomach pain
  • A general feeling of discomfort
  • Sleeping problem
  • Dryness of the mouth
  • Skin rashes
  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Unexplained weakness
  • Overfatigue

Aside from the list of common effects, we also have the long-term reactions. Consider the following:

  • Heart diseases
  • Kidney damage
  • Liver Damage
  • Insomnia
  • Osteoporosis
  • Nerve Damage
  • Diabetes

Getting Yourself Tested

So, why do you need to be tested this early? Well, the answer is so simple – getting aware of your condition. To someone implicated in unprotected sexual activity or involved alongside irresponsible sharing of syringes, advised to be tested. Some centres present free testing which one could possibly consider. Avoid just counting the availability of ARVs. Discuss alongside the physician the probability of acquiring an infection after your exposure.

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